Research & Policy

Research Grant Recipients


The AOFAS Research Grants Program is supported by the Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Foundation with generous contributions from individuals and industry. Grant applications are reviewed and ranked by the Research Committee using a blinded NIH-style review process, and funding recommendations are approved by the AOFAS Board of Directors. For information on applying for a grant, please visit the Research Grants Program page.


Biomechanical Testing of 3D Printed Implants for the Fixation of OTA Type B Ankle Fractures
Myles Dworkin, MD, MPH

Efficacy and Safety of Intraosseous Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Total Ankle Replacement: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial
Kurt Hofmann, MD

Multi-Omics Data Integration Using Machine Learning to Define Key Relationship of Healing Achilles Tendon and Paratenon
Daniel Moon, MD, MS, MBA; Michael David, PhD

The Biomechanical Evaluation of Achilles Tendon Mid-Substance Repair: The Effect of Heel Lift
Jiyong Ahn, MD, PhD; Soheil Ashkani-Esfahani, MD; John Kwon, MD; Christopher W. DiGiovanni, MD; Daniel Guss, MD, MBA; Lorena Bejarano-Pineda, MD; Gregory Waryasz, MD; Alireza Ebrahimi, MD, MBA

Arch Supporting Ligament Stiffness in Patients with PCFD Compared to Healthy Controls
L. Daniel Latt, MD, PhD

Stepping onto the Red Carpet of Etiology and Prevention: Gait Analysis as the Key to Success for Osteochondral Lesions of the Ankle
Sjoerd Stufkens, MD, PhD

Surgical Planning in the Treatment of Flexible Progressive Collapsing Foot Deformity to Improve Accuracy of Deformity Correction and Patient Reported Outcomes
Cesar de Cesar Netto, MD, PhD

Developing Precision Rehabilitation Using Wearable Sensors for Achilles Tendon Rupture Repair
Lorraine Boakye, MD

Strategizing Infection Prevention in Ankle Arthroplasty Based on Risk Factors and Wound Bacterial Load
Zijun Zhang, MD, PhD; Lew Schon, MD


Pilon Fractures: An Ideal Model to Understand Biological Factors Implicated in the Pathogenesis of Post-traumatic Osteoarthritis
Arun Aneja, MD, PhD; David Landy, MD, PhD; Arjun Srinath, MD, MPH; John McCarthy, PhD

Foot and Ankle Ligament Mechanics and Foot Function Throughout Pregnancy
Josh Baxter, PhD; Casey J. Humbyrd, MD, MBE

Evaluation of Congruency of the Peritalar Joints With and Without Weightbearing Using 3D Surface Mapping Augmented With 3D CT Scan Remodeling Techniques
Shuyuan Li, MD, PhD; Mark S. Myerson, MD

Prediction of Short-Term Postoperative Complications and Total Healthcare Cost Following Open Reduction Internal Fixation and Acute Hindfoot Nail Fixation of Acute Ankle Fractures
Joseph M. Liu, MD; Avinesh Agarwalla, MD; Anirudh K. Gowd, MD; Elizabeth A. Cody, MD; Alexander Peterson, MD; Eric W. Tan, MD

Research on Determining Bony Landmarks for Accurate Tibiofibular Syndesmotic Fixation: Cadaveric Validity and Safety Analysis of Angle Bisector Method
Soheil Ashkani-Esfahani, MD; Gregory Waryasz, MD; Bedri Karaismailoglu, MD; Siddhartha Sharma, MD; Matthias Peiffer, MD

Long-Term Outcomes for Modified Oblique Keller Capsular Interposition Arthroplasty (MOKCIA) for the Treatment of Hallux Rigidus
Jonathon D. Backus, MD; Jeffrey E. Johnson, MD; Jeremy J. McCormick, MD; Andrew P. Thome Jr., MD

Bone Marrow Aspirates versus Cancellous Bone Graft Harvest Cellular and Cytokine Comparison for Use in Bone Healing
Edward T. Haupt, MD

Evaluating Peroneal Tenosynovitis in Various Tendinopathic Conditions: Not All Peroneal Pathologies Are the Same
Kenneth J. Hunt, MD; Daniel Ross, MD; Sara Buckley, DO; Michael Zuscik, PhD

Optimization of the Leg Elevation Height After Ankle Fracture Fixation Using Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Physiological Parameters
Amir Kachooei, MD, PhD; Tara Moncman, DO; Ashkan Sedigh, MSc

Quantification of Gait Disturbances in a Murine, Charcot Neuroarthropathic Model: Utilization of a Novel, Cost-Effective, and Efficient Method
Michael C. Aynardi, MD; Shelby Alwine, BS


Shared-Decision Making in Orthopedic Surgery: Field-Testing a Patient Decision Aid for Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture
Brad Meulenkamp, MD; Dawn Stacey, RN, PhD

FK-506 as Adjuvant to Improve Healing of Ankle Arthrodesis
Jason Bariteau, MD; Jay Patel, PhD

Exosomes for Treatment of Tendinopathy
Daniel Grande,PhD; Adam Bitterman, DO

Biological and Mechanical Factors That Underpin the Development and Progression Charcot Neuropathy
Michael Aynardi, MD

Nitinol Staples vs Traditional Plate Osteosynthesis for Primary Arthrodesis of Lisfranc Injuries: A Retrospective Analysis
Samuel Ford, MD; Alex Dombrowsky, MD; Carson Strickland, MD

The Impact of Synovial Macrophages and Mild Synovitis on Chondrogenesis and Cartilage Repair in the Ankle
Zijun Zhang, MD; Lew Schon, MD

Weight Bearing CT Scans to Evaluate Contact Surface Area Deviations, Rational Overlap, and Medial Rotational Changes in Weber SER 4a Ankle Fractures
Timothy Charlton, MD; Max Michalski, MD


Evaluation of frHMGB1 Treatment for Nonunion Fracture Healing in a Diabetic Rat Model
Jarrett D. Cain, DPM, MSc; Feng Li, MD, PhD; Jianying Zhang, PhD; Alan Y. Yan, MD; MaCalus V. Hogan, MD, MBA, FAAOS, FAOA

Creating Machine Learning Algorithms to Assess the Risk of Developing Venous Thromboembolism and Bleeding Adverse Events in Patients with Ankle Fractures
Daniel Guss, MD, MBA; Bart Lubberts, MD, PhD; Gregory R. Waryasz, MD; Christopher W. DiGiovanni, MD; Rohan Bhimani, MD, MBA; Soheil Ashkani-Esfahani, MD; Reza Mojahed-Yazdi, MSc; Takahisa Ogawa, MD, MPH; Haggai Schermann, MD, MPH

Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Synovial Tissue of the Arthritic Ankle
Kenneth J. Hunt, MD; Michael Zuscik, PhD; Cheryl Ackert-Bicknell, PhD; Mary C. Hamati

Does the Synovial Fluid Fracture Hematoma after Intra-articular Ankle Fracture Cause Cartilage Damage?
Samuel B. Adams Jr., MD

Effect of Preoperative Mobility Device Training on Postoperative Fall Incidence in Foot and Ankle Surgery
Ashish Shah, MD; Nicholas Andrews, BS


Linking Structural Changes and Functional Outcomes Following Achilles Tendon Rupture
Josh Baxter; Kathryn O'Connor, MD

A Multifunctional Implant That Induces Bone Regeneration in Diabetics
John Femino, MD; Douglas Fredericks, BS; Aliasger Salem, PhD

Towards Consensus in Arthroscopic Management of Osteochondral Defects
Dominic Carreira, MD; Thomas Harris, MD; Kirk McCullough, MD; A. Holly Johnson, MD; Rebecca Cerrato, MD; Jorge Acevedo, MD; Eric Giza, MD

Immediate Weight Bearing in Diabetic Ankle Fractures with the Use of a Hindfoot Offloader Brace
Kyle Schweser, MD; Brett Crist, MD; Kyle Fiala, DPM; Benjamin Summerhays, DPM

Effect of Blood Flow Restriction Therapy Following Achilles Tendon Rupture and Repair
Mark Drakos, MD; Oliver Hansen, BA; Stephanie Eble, BA; Andrea Papson, DPT

Risk Factors for Chronic Ankle Instability After Lateral Ankle Sprain
David Porter, MD, PhD; Anand Vora, MD; Joseph Jacobson, MD; Robert Kulwin, MD

Does Patient-Reported Outcome Measure Use in Clinic Visits Improve Patient Satisfaction and Experience? A Randomized, Controlled Trial
Judith Baumhauer, MD, MPH; A. Samuel Flemister, MD; Benedict DiGiovanni, MD; David Bernstein, MBA, MA

Does Toe Curl Exercise Against Elastic Resistance Band Improves Popliteal Venous Return in Healthy Volunteers When the Leg Is Immobilized in Cast? 
Kandasamy Sampathkumar, FRCS(Tr&Orth)


Blood Flow Restriction Training After Ankle Fracture Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
Jeannie Huh, MD; Kenneth Nelson, MD; Andrew Contreras, DPT

The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on the Synovial Fluid Biomarkers in Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis of the Ankle
Yoshiharu Shimozono, MD; Eoghan Hurley, MBBCh; Lisa Fortier, DVM, PhD; John Kennedy, MD, FRCS

Randomized Trial of Dilute Betadine Soak and Scrub for Foot and Ankle Surgery
Kamran Hamid, MD, MPH; Connor Wakefield; David Rossi, BS; Alexander Idarraga, BA

Evaluating Posterior Tibial Tendinopathy's Biochemical Profile as a Means to Improve Early Stage Diagnosis of Adult-Acquired Flatfoot Deformity
J. Benjamin Jackson III, MD; F. Baker Mills IV, MS

Ultrasonography for Diagnosing Medial Sided Ankle Instability: A Cadaveric Study
Damien Richardson, MD, MPH; Brian Fenn; Christopher DiGiovanni, MD; Daniel Guss, MD, MBA; Noortje Hagemeijer, MD; Jirawat Saengsin, MD; Bart Lubberts, MD, PhD; Gregory Waryasz, MD

Nano-FT3C+: An Innovative Liposome-Based Formulation for Thyroid Hormone Controlled Delivery. An In Vitro Study on Tendinopathic Human Achilles Tendon Tenocytes
Nicola Maffulli, MD, FRCS, PhD; Alession D'Addona, MD; Giovanna Della Porta, MS, PhD; Paolo Trucillo, PhD

Immunoassay for Diagnosis and Tracking Treatment Response in Foot and Ankle Infection
Irvin Oh, MD; Stephanie Hao, BS; John Daiss, PhD


Development of Best Practices Guidelines for Pain Management After Elective Foot and Ankle Surgery
Mary Pedersen, MD; Derek Dillane, PhD; Lauren Beaupre, PhD; Martha Funabashi, PhD

The Effect of Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate with Microfracture: A Prospective Randomized Control Trial
John Mangan, MD; Rachel Shakked, MD; Joseph Daniel, DO; David Pedowitz, MD; Brian Winters, MD; Steven Raikin, MD

The Effectiveness of Perioperative Parecoxib Intravenous Administration in the Patients with Unstable Ankle Fractures Surgery: A Prospective, Double-blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Chayanin Angthong, MD

Predicting Collagen Turnover for Achilles Tendon Repair Across Diverse Loading Environments 
Christopher Gross, MD; William Richardson, PhD

3D Motion Analysis of Adjacent Joint Motion After Sequential, Partial Midfoot Infusion
Lauren Roberts, MD; Mark Drakos, MD; Daniel Sturnick, MS; Scott Ellis, MD

Applying Machine Learning Algorithms to Predict Tendon Health Using Ultrasound Imaging
Josh Baxter; Kathryn O’Connor, MD, MSPT; Michael Hast, PhD

The Neuropathic Molecular Pathology of Diabetic Charcot Neuroarthropathy: A Peptidomic Investigation of the Synovium 
Zijun Zhang, MD; Lew Schon, MD; Robert Cole, PhD


Assessment of the Prevalence and Safety of Left Foot Driving in Right Foot and Ankle Surgery Patients
Michael D. Johnson, MD; Despina Stavrinos, PhD; Ashish B. Shah, MD; Ibukunoluwa B. Araoye, MS; Parke W. Hudson, BS

Regional Epigenetic Responses of a Human Talar Cartilage to Impact Injury: An Investigation into Mechanisms of Post Traumatic Ankle Arthritis
Amiethab A. Aiyer, MD; Chun-Yuh Huang, PhD; Jonathan R.M. Kaplan, MD; Anish R. Kadakia, MD; Spencer Summers, MD; Hayley Ennis, MD

The Role of the Syndesmosis in Ankle Joint and Tibiofibular Kinematics
MaCalus V. Hogan, MD; Conor I. Murphy, MD; Richard E. Debski, PhD; Volker Musahl, MD

The Role of the Lateral Structures in Controlling Laxity of the Ankle Joint and the Ability of the Brostrom-Gould Reconstruction to Restore Native Joint Kinematics: A Biomechanical Investigation
James D.F. Calder PhD, FRCS; Hadi ElDaou, PhD

Development of a Method to Diagnose Subtle Syndesmosis Instability
Alexej Barg, MD; Charles L. Saltzman, MD

Defining the Cellular Basis for Poor Muscle Performance in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Gretchen A. Meyer, PhD; Jeffrey E. Johnson, MD; Sandra E. Klein, MD; Jeremy J. McCormick, MD; David R. Sinacore, PT, PhD


Do Knee Scooters Contribute to Lower Extremity Venous Stasis?
Christopher W. Reb, DO; Gregory C. Berlet, MD

Development of a Real Time Model of Foot and Ankle Kinematics During Simulated Gait – A Pilot Study
Bryan Smith, MD; Michael S. Pinzur, MD; Robert M. Havey, MS; Muturi G. Muriuki, PhD; Adam P. Schiff, MD

A Prospective Analysis of Midfoot Function, Ankle Power and Patient Functional Outcomes After Total Ankle Arthroplasty
Frank DiLiberto, PT, PhD; Steven L. Haddad, MD; Anand M. Vora, MD

Evaluation of Local Vancomycin Powder on Osteoblastic Function and Healing in a Rodent Ankle Arthrodesis Model
Jason T. Bariteau, MD; Rishin J. Kadakia, MD; Mara L. Schenker, MD; Nick J. Willet, PhD

Arthroscopic Evaluation of the Ankle Syndesmosis: A Cadaveric Study
Christopher W. DiGiovanni, MD; Bart Lubberts, MD; Bryan G. Vopat, MD; Anne H. Johnson, MD; Daniel Guss, MD, MBA<

Supramalleolar Osteotomy: Mid- to Long-term Results of 298 Consecutive Patients
Nicola Krähenbühl, MD; Lukas Zwicky, MSc; Liliana Bolliger, MSc; Markus Knupp, MD

In Vitro Assessment of the Role of Mechanical Strain in the Pathogenesis and Reversal of Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy
Mark R. Buckley, PhD; Adolph S. Flemister, Jr., MD; Alayna E. Loiselle, PhD; Michael S. Richards, PhD


Methodology for the Videao Analysis of Surgical Performance in Orthopedic Ankle Surgery
Douglas Beaman, MD

The Effect of Hindfoot Deformity on the Ankle Utilizing a Novel System to Simulate Weight Bearing in a Cadaveric Model
Naven Duggal, MD; Ara Nazarian, PhD

Arthroscopic Talar and Plafond Access for Osteochondral Lesions: The Effect of Limited Ankle Range of Motion on CT-Predicted Accessibility and Arthroscopic Visualization
Craig Chike Akoh, MD; Phinit Phisitkul, MD; Annunziato Amendola, MD

Differences in Gait After Ankle Arthrodesis and Ankle Arthroplasty When Ascending and Descending Stairs
Constantine Demetracopoulos, MD; Howard Hillstrom, PhD

Restoration of the Antibacterial Function of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Diabetic Foot Infection
Zijun Zhang, PhD, MD; Lew Schon, MD

Direct Delivery of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Plasmid Genes for Diabetic Fracture Healing in a Rabbit Model
Nathan Nicholson, MD; John Femino, MD; Alisager Salem, PhD


Ankle Arthroscopic Simulation Decreases Surgical Error and Improves Basic Arthroscopic Skills of Residents in Training
Kevin Martin, DO; Phinit Phisitkul, MD; John Femino, MD; Annunziato Amendola, MD

Enhancement of Achilles Tendon Repair via Peripheral Blood Mobilization and Chemokine-directed Migration of Native Marrow-Derived Stem Cells
Kevin Baker, PhD; Paul Fortin, MD

Prospective Comparison of the NIH PROMIS Physical Function, Lower Extremity, and Pain – Interference CATs Against the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score and SF-12 for Patients with Common Foot and Ankle Conditions
Stephen Greenfield, MD; Scott Ellis, MD; Hong Do, MS; Jayme Burket, PhD

In-vivo Arthrokinematics and Kinetics in the Normal and Chronically Unstable Ankle
Charles Saltzman, MD; Andrew Anderson, PhD


A biomechanical comparison of a novel spring ligament reconstruction technique with previously reported techniques
Josh Baxter, PhD; Jonathan T. Deland, MD

Syndesmotic disruption: Changes in tibiofubular motion and ankle contact stresses
Mark C. Drakos, MD; Jeremy LaMothe, MD; Josh Baxter, PhD

Adipogenesis of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells in foot fat pad
Zijun Zhang, MD; Lew Schon, MD


Ankle joint pressure in pes cavus after lateralizing supramalleolar and calcaneal osteotomy
Timo Schmid, MD; Fabian Krause, MD

Exercise effect on diabetic (db/db) mice Achilles tendons
Robert Laughlin, MD; Greg Boivin, DVM

Radiographic evaluation of plantar plate injury: An in vitro biomechanical study
Thomas Clanton, MD; Norman Waldrop, III, MD

Clinical and biomechanical outcomes following gastrocnemius recession vs plantar fasciotomy for plantar fasciitis: A prospective randomized controlled clinical tool
Erik Nilssen, MD; Elizabeth Russell, PhD


The effect of a bisphosphonate pretreatment on the enhancement of osseous incorporation and chondrocyte viability of fresh osteochondral allografts
Paul T. Fortin, MD; Kevin Baker, MS

Proprioception and neuromuscular control following ankle instability surgery
Gregory Gutierrez, PhD; Kenneth J. Mroczek, MD

Early vs delayed weight-bearing after microfracture for osteochondral lesions of the talus
Kevin L. Kirk, DO; James R. Ficke, MD

Biomechanical factors impacting foot function and muscle performance following gastrocnemius recession
Deborah Nawoczenski, PhD, PT; Benedict F. DiGiovanni, MD


Metabolic profiling and cytokine analysis of synovial fluid in healthy and end-stage post-traumatic ankle joints
Samuel B. Adams, MD; Lew C. Schon, MD

Gastrocnemius recession versus Achilles tendon debridement with flexor hallucis longus transfer for chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy: A prospective randomized controlled trial
John G. Anderson, MD; Donald R. Bohay, MD

Three-dimensional non-invasive kenematic analysis of the transverse tarsal joint and determination of the role of the plantar fascia on the transverse tarsal locking mechanism
Brad Blankenhorn, MD; Christopher W. DiGiovanni, MD

In-vivo comparison of plantar pressures in pes rectus, pes planus, and the adult acquired flatfoot using supine, vertical posture, and gait measurements
Scott J. Ellis, MD; Howard Hillstrom, PhD

Investigation into genome-wide differential expression between diabetic and non-diabetic patients in healing of ankle fractures
Lorenzo Gamez, MD; Brian Silvia, MD


Plantar pressure analysis in forefoot after different amount of lateral column lengthening: A biomechanical study
Jonathan T. Deland, MD; Irvin Oh, MD

The biomechanics of cartilage damage and repair at the ankle joint
John G. Kennedy, MD; Carl W. Imhauser, PhD; Padhraig F. O’Loughlin, MD

Ankle joint pressure in pes cavus after common hindfoot osteotomies
Fabian Krause, MD; Karsten Schwieger, PhD

Effectiveness of Morton’s extension carbon foot plate in the non-operative treatment of hallux rigidus
Amar Patel, MD; Judith F. Baumhauer, MD; Deborah Nawoczenski, PhD, PT


A biomechanical analysis of a tensioned suture device in the fixation of a ligamentous Lisfranc injury
Timothy C. Beals, MD; Chris Pelt, MD

Early surgical treatment of displaced intra-articular calcaneus fractures through a combined medial and lateral approach
Wayne S. Berberian, MD; Frank Liporace, MD

Can human bone marrow-derived stem cells differentiate into tendon-forming cells?
Nicholas Forsyth, PhD; Nicola Maffulli, MD

Lower extremity kinetics and kinematics during stair climbing in patients with ankle osteoarthritis
Tricia Hubbard, PhD, ATC; Robert B. Anderson, MD;

Stiffness and histology analysis of the ankle joint cartilage
Victor Valderrabano, MD, PhD; Olaf Buettner, MD


Canadian Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (COFAS) multi-centered randomized case controlled trial on clinical and radiographic outcome of total ankle arthroplasty vs. ankle ankle arthrodesis
Mark A. Glazebrook, MD; Timothy R. Daniels, MD; Alastair Younger, MD

The intraosseous innervation of the talar dome: A histologic study
Sandra E. Klein, MD; John V. Marymont, MD; Francis H. Gannon, MD; Kevin E. Varner, MD

Load Transfer in Transtibial Amputation with Distal Tibio-Fibular Bond Bridging
Michael S. Pinzur, MD; Avinash Patwardhan, PhD

Enhancing conservative management of patients with midfoot arthritis
Smita Rao, PhD, PT; Benedict F. DiGiovanni, MD; Deborah Nawoczenski, PhD, PT

Development of a method to quantify subtalar joint instability
Stacie Ringleb, PhD; Claude D. Anderson, MD; Marlene DeMaio, MD

Quantitative and qualitative description: Effects of bone marrow derived growth factors and cytokines on autogenous mesenchymal stem cells of various aspiration sites
Lew C. Schon, MD; Su-Young Bae, MD, PhD; Stuart D. Miller, MD


The effect of continuous irrigation during burring on thermal necrosis and fusion strength in rabbit arthrodesis model
Steven L. Haddad, MD; Cary Templin, MD

Effect of Bracing and strengthening exercise on foot kinematics and function in subjects with stage II PTTD
Jeffrey Houck, PhD, PT; Judith F. Baumhauer, MD

Second and third MT stress fracture: gender, kinematics, kinetics and plantar plate difference as they relate to stress fracture
Robin Queen, PhD; James A. Nunley, MD

Inflammatory cytokines expression in degenerative tendonosis: Quantitative description and relation to whole tendon mechanical stimuli
Lew C. Schon, MD; Gregory P. Guyton, MD


The effect of medial calcaneal osteotomy and lateral column lengthening on forefoot pressures
Robert S. Adelaar, MD; Aaron T. Scott, MD; Travis M. Hendry, MD; Jennifer Wayne, PhD

Biomechanical and Anatomic Analysis of Minimally Invasive Deltoid Ligament Reconstruction
Eric M. Bluman, MD, PhD; Mark S. Myerson, MD

Hindfoot motion after reconstruction for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction
James W. Brodsky, MD; Fabian E. Pollo, PhD

Ankle arthrodesis vs. Ankle arthroplasty for End Stage ankle arthritis: a prospective functional comparison
Timothy R. Daniels, MD

A randomized controlled trial of 1st MTP joint fusion compared to 1st MTP hemiarthroplasty in severe hallux rigidus
Johnny T.C. Lau, MD; Timothy R. Daniels, MD

Evaluation of the effect of preoperative varus and valgus knee alignment on postoperative foot and ankle alignment, function, and outcome after total knee replacement
Simon Lee, MD; George B. Holmes, Jr, MD; Johnny L. Lin, MD

Prospective randomized clinical pilot study to evaluate the effects of the medial distal locking plate for high energy intra-articular fracture of distal tibia
David J.G. Stephen, MD; Wade Gofton, MD


Strength of the Achilles Insertion Site After Partial Retrocalcaneal Exostectomy: A Biomechanical Study
Thomas O. Clanton, MD; Jeremy Britten, MD

The impact of Interleukin 17 on the Production of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 in Normal and Osteoarthritic Human Ankle and Knee Cartilage
James A. Nunley, MD; Farshid Guilak, PhD

The Effect of Walking Speed on Forefoot Motion and Loading in Patients with Ankle Arthrodesis or Arthoplasty
Charles L. Saltzman, MD; Jason M. Wilken, PhD, MPT

Augmentation of Achilles Tendon Healing Using Gene Therapy with BMP 14 in a Rat Model
Brian C. Toolan, MD; Rebecca A. Cerrato, MD; Rex Haydon, MD, PhD


The effect of intra-articular fractures on fractures on cartilage in humans
Michael E. Brage, MD; Scott T. Ball, MD; David Amiel, PhD

The additional stability achieved by adding the inferior extensor retinaculum tissue to the Brostrom lateral ankle ligament reconstruction
Andrew J. Elliott, MD; James C. Otis, PhD

Investigation of midtarsal locking
William Ledoux, PhD; Bruce J. Sangeorzan, MD

Design and implementation of a prospective foot and ankle outcomes database
Nelson Fong SooHoo, MD

The role of the ankle articular surfaces in controlling joint motion
Yuki Tochigi, MD, PhD; Charles L. Saltzman, MD; J. James Rudert, PhD; Thomas D. Brown, PhD


MRI Evaluation of First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Kinematics
Judith F. Baumhauer, MD

Reliability and Validity of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Clinical Rating Scale
Judith F. Baumhauer, MD

Experimental Overuse Achilles Tendinopathy: Establishment and Histological Validation of a Rat Tendonosis Model with Characterization of Molecular Cross Linking, Collagen Types I and III, Biomechanical Properties and Effect of Mechanical Stress
Mark A. Glazebrook, MD

The Effect of Foot Orthoses on Posterior Tibialis, Tibialis Anterior, and Peroneus Longus Muscle Electromyographic Activity During Walking and Running
Michael P. Schaefer, MD


The Effect of Variation in Rocker Sole Design on Gait Characteristics and Planter Pressures with Walking in a Total Contact Cast
Jeffrey E. Johnson, MD

Ankle Joint Stability: Ligamentous and Articular Constraints
Kenton R. Kaufman, PhD; Kota Watanabe, MD; Harold B. Kitaoka, MD

The Effect of Achilles Tendon Stretching on Weightbearing
David S. Levine, MD; James C. Otis, PhD

Identification of Potential Donor Rotational Bone Grafts using Vascular Territories in the Foot and Ankle
James A. Nunley, MD

Kinematic Analysis of the Normal and Flatfoot Deformity
Rita M. Patterson, PhD


Tendon Transfer Fixation in the Foot and Ankle: Biomechanical Comparison of Traditional Fixation Versus Bioabsorbable Screw Fixation
Thomas O. Clanton, MD

Gastrocnemius Recession for The Correction Of Equinus Deformity in the Adult
Steven D. Steinlauf, MD

Normal Human Talonavicular Joint Kinematics in Gait
Anthony D. Watson, MD


Clinical Pathophysiology of Plantar Fasciitis
Nicholas A. Abidi, MD; Rocky S. Tuan, PhD

Comparative Biomechanical Analysis of Fusion Techniques for Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis
Jorge I. Acevedo, MD; Lew C. Schon, MD

Comparison of Plantar Pressure Changes and Foot Ulcer Healing Times in DM Patients Wearing TCC and Pneumatic Walking Brace
Sheldon S. Lin, MD; Gregory H. Sirounian, MD

Botulinum Toxin Injections for Prevention of Contracture in Augmentation of Tendon Repair
Eyal A. Melamed, MD; Mark S. Myerson, MD


Delayed Fracture Healing in Diabetes Mellitus BB Wistar Rats: Model and Potential Txt
Sheldon S. Lin, MD; J. Russell Parsons, PhD

Achilles Tendon Lengthening for Reduction of Forefoot Ulceration in the Diabetic Patient
Neil Sharkey, PhD; Paul J. Juliano, MD; Peter R. Cavanagh, PhD

Biomechanical Evaluation of Suture Anchor Strength for Reattachment of Achilles Insertion
Thom A. Tarquinio, MD; Douglas E. Parsell, PhD


The Effects of Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity on the Tibiotalar Joint Contact Characteristics
Michael E. Brage, MD; Louis F. Draganich, PhD

Biomechanics of Lisfranc Joint
Lisa T. DeGnore, MD

Biomechanical and Immunohistochemical Study of the MCL of the Big Toe MTP Joint
Zong-Ping Luo, PhD

Review of Technique and Demonstration of Experimental Flatfoot Model
Bruce J. Sangeorzan, MD